Floristic study and diversity of lichen species in highlands of Kuh-Asiab protected area in Kuhbanan (Kerman province, Iran)

Document Type: Systematics and Biodiversity of Fungi


1 MSc in Plant Systematic-Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran

2 Assistant Prof. of Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran

3 Assistant Prof. of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology Research Group, Iranian Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (IROST), Tehran, Iran


Little attention has been devoted to lichens of Kerman province (Iran). This study was conducted to identify lichens in the Kuh-Asiab protected area of Kubanan located in the northernmost part of Kerman province. In this study, eight sites were chosen in the area. Sampling was carried out according to Random method. Height data were obtained from each site along with the abundance of lichen species. In addition, number and density of species and cover percentage of the species were measured. Thirty-one species belong to 19 genera and two vegetative forms were identified. Both the Shannon and Simpson indices were calculated and compared for each sampling site. Species richness was calculated according to Margalef and Menhinick indices. Our results suggested that, lichen species richness and diversity were increasing with increasing height. The results also showed significant differences in species diversity and richness among sampling sites.The highest number of indicators was observed in sites with average height. Comparison of indices showed that, Simpson diversity was the best indicator for showing the situation of the community.



Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

مطالعه فلوریستیک و تنوع گونه‌های گلسنگ در ارتفاعات منطقه حفاظت شده کوه آسیاب کوهبنان (استان کرمان)

Authors [Persian]

  • اعظم غیاثی 1
  • علی احمدی مقدم 2
  • محمد سهرابی 3
1 کارشناسی ارشد سیستماتیک-اکولوژی گیاهی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، ایران
2 استادیار گروه زیست شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، ایران
3 استادیار گروه پژوهشی زیست فناوری صنعتی و محیط زیست، سازمان پژوهش‌های علمی و صنعتی، تهران، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

بسیاری از نقاط استان کرمان، پهناورترین استان ایران با وجود شرایط خاص اقلیمی و تنوع پوشش گیاهی، از نظر شناسایی و مطالعه گلسنگ‌ها ناشناخته مانده است. این مطالعه، با هدف شناسایی و بررسی تنوع زیستی گلسنگ ­ها در منطقه حفاظت‌ شده کوه آسیاب کوهبنان واقع در شمالی­ ترین نقطه استان کرمان انجام شد. تاکنون، هیچ مطالعه ­ای در این زمینه در این منطقه انجام نگرفته است. نمونه­ برداری با روش تصادفی طبقه‌بندی همگن و در ارتفاعات متفاوت در هشت ایستگاه صورت گرفت، به طوری‌ که در هر ایستگاه تعدادی کوادرات 20 در 25 سانتی‌متر مربع به صورت تصادفی مستقر شد که در نهایت در تمام منطقه، تعداد 83 کوادرات ایجاد شد. اندازه کوادرات‌ها با روش تعیین سطح حداقل مشخص شد و در هر کدام، علاوه بر جمع­ آوری گونه های گلسنگ، شاخص­ های فراوانی، درصد پوشش و تراکم گونه‌ها و همچنین تعداد آرایه­ ها اندازه­ گیری و سپس نمونه‌ها مورد شناسایی قرار گرفتند که در نتیجه تعداد 31 گونه گلسنگ صخره‌زی در 19 جنس و دو فرم رویشی شناسایی گردید. با محاسبه درصد فراوانی فرم ­های رویشی و جنس­ های موجود در منطقه، مشخص شد گلسنگ­ های پوسته­ ای فرم رویشی غالب در منطقه هستند و بیشترین فراوانی متعلق به جنس  Acarospora به مقدار19 درصد بود. تجزیه و تحلیل آماری در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی نامتعادل انجام گرفت و در هر ایستگاه شاخص تنوع گونه­ ای براساس دو شاخص تنوع شانون-وینر و سیمپسون و غنای گونه­ا ی براساس دو شاخص غنای مارگالف و منهینیک در نرم‌افزار past محاسبه شد. نتایج آنالیز واریانس نشان داد، شاخص‌های تنوع و غنای گونه ­ای و همچنین تعداد گونه در هشت ایستگاه با یکدیگر تفاوت معنی­ داری داشتند (05/0>P) و بیشترین مقدار شاخص­ های ذکر شده در ایستگاه­ های با ارتفاع متوسط مشاهده گردید. مقایسه شاخص ­ها نشان داد تنوع سیمپسون بهترین شاخص برای نشان دادن وضعیت جامعه از نظر تنوع است.


Keywords [Persian]

  • اجتماعات گلسنگ
  • تنوع سیمپسون
  • غنای گونه‌ای
  • فرم رویشی
  • نمونه‌برداری

Adam, A. 2017. The Urban Heat Island Effect and Its Impact on Lichen Abundance and Diversity in Jefferson County, Kentucky. Proceedings of the National Conference on Under-graduate Research (NCUR), April 6–8, Tennessee, Memphis: 429.

Alam, M.A. 2014. Growth chamber experiments on lichens: temperature and humidity regimes rapidly shape growth rates and carbohydrate contents. MSc. thesis submitted to the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, 53 pp.

Bahadur, Ch., Solhoy, T., Gauslaa, Y. & W. Palmer, M. 2010. The elevation gradient of lichen species richness in Nepal. Lichenologist 42(1): 83–96.

Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D. & Sharnoff, S. 2001. Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, 828 pp., New Haven, Connecticut.

Brown, J.H. & Lomolino, M.V. 1998. Biogeography. Sinauer Associates, Inc., 691 pp., Sunderland.

Bruun, H.H., Moen, J., Virtanen, R., Grytnes, J., Oksanen, L. & Angerbjorn, A. 2006. Effects of altitude &topography on species richness of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in alpine communities. Journal of Vegetation Science 17: 37–46.

Brunialti, G. & Giordani, P. 2003. Variability of lichen diversity in a climatically heterogeneous area (Ligaria, NW Italy). Lichenologist 35: 55–69.

Crites, S. & Dale-Mark, R.T. 1998. Diversity and abundance of bryophytes, lichens, and fungi in relation to wood substrate and successional stage in aspen mixed wood boreal forests. Canadian Journal of Botany 76: 641–651.

Dobson, F.S. 2005. Lichens, An Illustrated Guide to the British and Irish species. Richmond Publishing. 480 pp.

Eversman, S. 1982. Epiphytic lichens of a ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa forest in southeastern Montana USA. Bryologist 85: 204–214.

Göbel, F. 1830. Chemical examination of a substance that has rained in Persia, Parmelia esculenta. Journal of Chemical Physics 60: 393–399
(In German).

Ghorbani, M. & Azizian, H. 2009. Economic Geological Report 1: 100,000 Kohanban. Pp: 32–47. Geological Survey of Iran, Kerman (In Persian).

Goodman, D. 1975. The theory of diversity-stability relation in ecology. Quarterly Review of Biology 50: 237–266.

Grytnes, J.A. & Vetaas, O.R. 2002. Species richness and altitude, a comparison between simulation models and interpolated plant species richness along the Himalayan altitudinal gradient, Nepal. American Naturalist 159: 294–304.

Haji Moniri, M. 2009. History of lichenology in Iran, with some additional lichens from Golestan province (N. Iran). Iranian Journal of Botany 15(2): 159–163.

Hector, A.B., Schmid, C., Beirrkuhnlein., Caldeiria, M.C. & Diemer, M. 1999. Diversity and productivity experiment in European Plant grasslands. Journal of Science 139: 1123–1126.

Index Fungorum, 2016.

Kazemi, S.S. & Ghahremaninejad, F. 2008. New records of lichen species from Iran. Iranian Journal of Botany 14(2): 171–172.

Lehmkuhl, J.F. 2004. Epiphytic lichen diversity and biomass in low-elevation forests of eastern Washington Cascade range, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 187: 381–392.

Lesica, P., McCune, B., Cooper, S.V. & Hong, W.S. 1991. Differences in lichen and bryophyte communities between old-growth and managed second-growth forests in the Swan Valley Montana. Canadian Journal of Botany 69:

Lieberman, D., Lieberman, M., Peralta, R. & Hartshorn, G.S. 1996. Tropical forest structure and composition on a large-scale altitudinal gradient in Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 84: 137–152.

Lotfian, S. 2007. Identification of lichens around Sarcheshmeh copper complex and investigation of the effect of pollutants from the complex on them, with special attention to Rhizoplaca melanopthalma. MSc thesis, submitted to the Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran, 98 pp. (In Persain).

Margalef, R. 1958. Temporal Succession and Spatial Heterogeneity in Phytoplankton. In: Perspectives in Marine Biology. Pp. 323–347. University of California Press, Berkeley.

McCune, B. & Geiser, L. 1997. Macro lichens of the Pacific Northwest. Pp. 279–302. Oregon State University Press.

Mesdaghi, M. 2005. Plant Ecology. Pp. 90–123. Mashhad University Press (In Persian).

 Nascimbene, J. & Marini, L. 2015. Epiphytic lichen diversity along elevational gradients: biological traits reveal a complex response to water and energy. Journal of Biogeography 42: 1222–1232.

Odland, A. & Birks, H.J.B. 1999. The altitudinal gradient of vascular plant species richness in Aurland, Western Norway. Ecography 22: 548–566.

Orange, A., James, W. & White, J. 2001. Microchemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens. British Lichen Society, 101 pp., London.

Pascal, V., Martin, C., Romain, M., Luca, M., Mathias, V. & Jean-Paul, T. 2010. Subalpine-nival gradient of species richness for vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in the Swiss Inner Alps. Botanica Helvetica 120(2): 105–115.

Pausas, J.G. & Austin, M.P. 2001. Patterns of plant species richness in relation to different environments: an appraisal. Journal of Vegetation Science 12: 153–166.

Pielou, E.C. 1966. The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. Journal of Theoretical Biology 3: 131–144.

Pinokiyo, A., Singh, K.P. & Singh, J.S.H. 2008. Diversity and Distribution of Lichens in relation to altitude within a protected biodiversity hot spot, north-east India. The British Lichen Society. The Lichenologist 40: 47–62.

Pintado, A., Sancho, L.G. & Valladares, F. 2001. The influence of microclimate on the composition of lichen communities along an altitudinal gradient in the maritime Antarctic. Symbiosis 31: 69–84.

Rahbek, C. 1997. The relationship among area, elevation, and regional species richness in Neotropical birds. American Naturalist 149: 875–902.

Sanchez-Gonzalez, A. & Lopez-Mata, L. 2005. Plant species richness and diversity along an altitudinal gradient in the Sierra Nevada, Mexico. Diversity and Distribution 11: 567–575.

Seaward, M.R.D., Sipman, H.J.M., Schultz, M., Maassoumi, A.A., Haji Moniri, M. & Sohrabi, M. 2004. A preliminary lichen checklist for Iran. Willdenowia 34: 543–576.

Seaward, M.R.D., Sipman, H.J.M. & Sohrabi, M.2008. A revised checklist of lichenized, lichenicolous and allied fungi for Iran. Sauteria 15: 459–520.

Shahla, S. Maassoumi, A. & Rajamand, M. 2008. Study of Identification and Distribution of Cyanolichens from Iran. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Iran, 110 pp. (In Persian).

Shannon, C.E. & Weaver, W. 1949. The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana, IL: University Illinois Press, 125 pp.

Sheard, J.W. & Jonesen, M.E. 1974. A multivariate analysis of the distribution of lichens on Populuslemuloides in West-Central Canada. Bryologist 77: 514–530.

Simpson, E.H. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature 168: 688.

Sipman, H. 2003. Provisional Key for Lichen Genera and Some Species of Iran. Retrieved from On: 12 June 2010.

Sohrabi, M. 2010a. A History of Iranian Lichenology. URL:

Sohrabi, M. 2010b. A Preliminary Checklist for Lichenized Fungi of Kerman province, Iran. URL:

Sohrabi, M. & Alstrup, V. 2007. Additions to the lichen mycota of Iran from East Azerbaijan province. Mycotaxon 100: 145–148.

Sohrabi, M. & Orange, A. 2006. New records of sorediate lichens from Iran. Iranian Journal of Botany 12: 101–103.

Sohrabi, M. & Ghobad-Nejhad, M. (eds). 2010. Myco-Lich: Online Mycology-Lichenology of Iran. URL:

Sohrabi, M. & Vagn, A. 2007. Additions to the lichen mycota of Iran from East Azerbaijan Province. Mycotaxon 100: 145–148.

Szatala, O. 1940. Results of a botanical journey to theIran. Analen des naturhistorischen Museum in Wien 50: 410–536 (In German).

Uliczka, H. & Angelstam, P. 1999. Occurrence of epiphytic macrolichens in relation to tree species and age in a managed boreal forest. Ecography 22: 396–405.

Valadbeigi, T., Thorsten, Lumbsch, H., Sipman, H.J.M., Riahi, H. & Maassoumi, A. 2010. Additions to our knowledge of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Iran. Mycotaxon 110: 455–458.

Vanneste, T., Michelsen, O., Graae, B.J. & Kyrkjeeide, M.O. 2017. Impact of climate change on alpine vegetation of mountain summitsin Norway. Ecological Research 32: 579–593.

Vetaas, O.R. & Grytnes, J.A. 2002. Distribution of vascular plant species richness and endemic richness along the Himalayan elevation gradient in Nepal. Global Ecology and Biogeography 11: 291–301.

Wang, G.H., Zhou, G.S., Yang, L.M. & Li, Z.Q. 2003. Distribution, species diversity and life-form spectra of plant communities along an altitudinal gradient in the northern slopes of Qilianshan Mountains, Gansu, China. Plant Ecology 165: 169–18.

Wangda, P. & Ohsawa, M. 2006. Gradational forest change along the climatically dry valley slopes of Bhutan in midst of humid eastern Himalaya. Plant Ecology 186: 109–128.

Whittaker, R.J. Willis, K.J. & Field, R. 2001. Scale and species richness: towards a general hierarchical theory of species diversity. Journal of Biogeography 28: 453–470.

Wolf, J.H.D. 1993. Diversity patterns and biomass of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens along an altitudinal gradient in the northern Andes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 80: 928–960.

Yemane, T., Zeratsion, A., Afewerk, K. & Berhane, G. 2009. Dynamic Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Diversity Management in Situ and Livelihood Resilience in South and Central Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS). Mekelle University 1(2): 67–94.

Yuguang, B., Abouguendia, Z. & Redmann, R.E. 2001. Relationship between plant species diversity
and grassland condition. Journal of range Management 54: 177–183.